Conductor Arturo Toscanini was born in Parma on 25th March 1867.

His career as a conductor began at the age of 19, when he was asked to conduct Aida in Rio de Janeiro. In 1895, he conducted the premiere of Puccini’s Bohème at the Teatro Regio in Turin, whereas his special bond with the Teatro alla Scala in Milan dates back to 1898.

He was the Music Director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York from 1908 to 1915. In 1928, he was appointed as “Principal Conductor” of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra.

During the First World War, he openly condemned the policy of Germany, and in 1931, he refused to conduct the Italian fascist anthem and the Royal March.

In 1936, he inaugurated the Palestine Orchestra, and in 1937 he started to conduct a serie of radio broadcast concerts. In 1946, he came back to Italy to conduct the inaugural concert at the Teatro alla Scala after the end of the war.

He died in New York on 16th January 1957.

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